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LEARN ABOUT HAIR FALLING

LEARN ABOUT HAIR FALLING

-        What is the structure of hairs?
Learn about the different phases of hair growth, See hair and human growth, what is hair falling?
What are the causes of hair falling?, Symptoms of hair loss, Does any type of hair falling respond to treatment?, What are the common types of alopecia?, What is alopecia areata?, What is androgenetic alopecia?, What is traction alopecia?, and Other common types of hair falling.

-        What is the structure of hairs?
Hair is composed of strong structural protein called keratin. Each strand of hair consists of three layers.
Cuticle:
• The outermost layer is known as the cuticle. The cuticle is thin and colorless and serves as a protector of the cortex.
Cortex:
• The middle layer known as the cortex. The cortex provides strength and both the color and the texture of hair.
Medulla:
• An innermost layer or medulla, which is only present in large thick hairs.

Learn about the different phases of hair growth.

Hair follicles grow in repeated cycles. One cycle can be broken down into three Phases
Anagen - Growth Phase.
Catagen - Transitional phase.
Telogen - Resting Phase.
Anagen Phase (Growth Phase)

--Approximately 85% of all hairs are in the growing phase at any one time.
--The Anagen phase or growth phase can vary from two to six years.
--Hair grows approximately 10cm per year and any individual hair is unlikely to grow more than one meter long.

Catagen phase:

--lasts about one or two weeks, during the Catagen phase the hair follicle shrinks to about 1/6 of the normal length.
--The lower part is destroyed and the dermal papilla breaks away to rest below.

Telogen Phase (resting phase)

--The resting phase follows the catagen phase
--Normally lasts about 5-6 weeks.
--During this time the hair does not grow but stays attached to the follicle
--The dermal papilla stays in a resting phase below.
--Approximately 10-15 percent of all hairs are in this phase at an one time.
--At the end of the Telogen phase the hair follicle re-enters the Anagen phase again. The dermal papilla and the base of the follicle join together again and a new hair begins to form.
--If the old hair has not already been shed the new hair pushes the old one out and the growth cycle starts all over again.

Types of hair through human growth stages.

1. Lanugo hair This is the hair that develops on an unborn baby. It begins to grow about three months after the baby's conception. The hairs are fine and soft, and they grow all over the baby's body. They all grow at the same rate, so the hair is the same length some prematurely born babies are still covered with these downy hairs. Normally they are shed about four weeks before the baby is due to be born (most likely)Sometimes baby is born with lanugo hair.

2. Vellus hair Are short hair, only a centimeter or two long, and contain little or no pigment. The follicles that produce them do not have oil glands (often called sebaceous gland), and never produce any other kind of the hair.

3. Terminal hair. Are the long hairs that grow on the head and in many people on the body, arms and legs too.

They are produced by follicles with sebaceous glands. In people who have inherited a tendency to baldness the hairs in these follicles gradually, become thinner and shorter until they look like vellus hairs.

Androgen defendant hair.
This is a type of terminal hair, appears during puberty due to hormones.

What is hair falling?
Alopecia refers to hair loss in areas of skin that normally have hair.

What are the causes of hair falling?

Many things can cause alopecia, including:
1. Stress that prompts growing hairs to rest and shed Illness or surgery Prolonged fever Childbirth Emotional/psychological stress Crash dieting
2. Hormonal problems Overactive or under active thyroid gland
3. Medications.
                     Blood thinners
                    Drugs for gout
                    Chemotherapy for cancer treatment
                    Birth control pills
                    Antidepressants
                    Blood pressure and heart medications
4. Allergic reaction to medications.
5. Radiation therapy.
6. Infections
                     Fungal infections - hair breaks off near the scalp
                     Syphilis
                     HIV
                     Herpes simplex
7. Autoimmune disorders
8. Systemic and discoid lupus erythematosus
9. Anemia
10. Hair pulled too tightly by:
                    Hair rollers
                    Pigtails
                    Cornrows
11. Hot oil treatments (can inflame the hair follicle and cause scarring)
12. Twisting and pulling hair out due to psychiatric problems
13. Genes
                    Male-pattern baldness is usually inherited.
                    Birth defects can include problems with the hair shaft.

Symptoms of hair loss.

                   Rapid hair loss 
                   Round or oval patches of hair loss
                   Sometimes tiny hairs are visible in the patches
                   Brittleness.
                   Stress-related.
                   Gradual shedding 
                   Hairs come out with gentle pulling
                   Patches of hair loss
                   Black dots in the patches
                   Itching
                   Scaling
                   Inflammation (such as redness)

Does any type of hair falling respond to treatment?
The answer is no as it depends upon the cause of hair falling this results in two classifications for hair falling

Scarring

Destruction of hair follicles leads to permanent hair loss.
Causes:
Cutaneous lupus erythematous and fungal kerions are the most prevalent forms of scarring alopecia.
Non-scarring
the hair shaft is gone but the follicles are still present. Because the hair follicles still exist, it is often reversible. It can, however, develop into the scarring type.

What are the common types of alopecia?
#Alopecia Areata (AA)
                   Used to describe hair loss occurring in patches anywhere on the body.
#Alopecia Totalis (AT)
                   Total loss of the hair on the scalp.
#Alopecia Universalis (AU) 
                   Total loss of all hair on the body.
#Alopecia Barbae 
                   Loss of facial hair (for a man) especially in the beard area.
#Alopecia Mucinosa 
                  A type of alopecia which results in scaly patches.
#Androgenetic Alopecia (AGA)
                  Also known as male pattern baldness. It is a thinning of the hair to an almost transparent state, in both men or women. It is thought to be a hereditary form of hair loss.

What is alopecia areata?

Definition:
Alopecia areata is patchy hair loss of autoimmune origin. It usually presents as a single oval patch or multiple patches of asymptomatic, well-circumscribed, non-scarring alopecia. Severity varies from a small patch loss of hair to entire scalp.

--Alopecia areata occurs in the general population, with men and women equally affected. The condition may be present in persons of any age, but is more common in children and young adults.
--The course of alopecia areata is one of spontaneous remissions and recurrences

What is androgenetic alopecia?

Definition:
Androgenetic hair loss, which is caused by three interdependent factors: Genes, hormones and age.

Genes:
Genes that are located on the X or Y-chromosomes are call sex-linked. Genes on the other 22 pairs of chromosomes are called autosomal. It is felt that the genes governing common baldness are autosomal (not sex linked). This means that the baldness trait can be inherited from the mother's side of the family or the father's side with equal frequency. The commonly held notion that baldness comes only from the mother's side of the family is incorrect, although for reasons not fully understood, the predisposition inherited from an affected mother is of slightly greater importance than that inherited from an affected father. (Predominant gene).

Hormones
The same hormones that cause acne and beard growth can also signal the beginning of baldness. The presence of androgens; testosterone, and its related hormone DHT, cause some follicles to regress and die. In addition to the testicles, the adrenal glands located above each of our kidneys, produce androgenic hormones, and this would be similar in both sexes. In females, the ovaries are an additional source of hormones that can affect hair.
It is clear that the hormonal factor is different between man and woman, and this explains why androgenetic alopecia is different in appearance between them.
Testosterone 5- Alpha reductase Di-hydrotestosterone that bind to androgenic receptors on dermal papilla that cause shrinkage of hair follicle gradually leading to regress and falling

The presence of the necessary genes and hormones are not alone sufficient to cause baldness. Even after a person has reached puberty, susceptible hair follicles must continually be exposed to the hormone over a period of time for hair loss to occur. The age at which these effects finally manifest themselves varies from one individual to another and is related to a person's genetic composition and to the levels of testosterone in the bloodstream

What is traction alopecia?
• Traction alopecia is usually due to excessive pulling or tension on hair shafts as a result of certain hair styles. It is seen more often in women, particularly those of East Indian and Afro-Caribbean origin. Hair loss depends on the way the hair is being pulled. Prolonged traction alopecia can stop new hair follicles developing and lead to permanent hair loss.

Other common types of hair falling:
Anagen Effluvium
• This hair loss is generally caused by chemicals such as those used to treat cancer. Initially it causes patchy hair loss, which often then becomes total hair loss. The good news is that when you stop using these chemicals the hair normally grows back (usually about 6 months later). Other drugs also can cause hair loss. Many medicines used to treat even common diseases can cause hair loss.

Telogen Effluvium

Definition:
An acute, diffuse hair loss occurring 3- months after a medical event. Symptoms: A form of hair loss where more than normal amounts of hair fall out. There is a general 'thinning' of the hair. Unlike some other hair and scalp conditions, it is temporary and the hair growth usually recovers.

Diagnostic features:
. Sudden onset.
. Diffuse loss of hair.
. Medical event 3 months previously
. May occur without a clear reason

Advantage of Herbal treatment
-Effective and time tested products
-Natural preparation with high safety profile.
-Present in different forms like shampoos, oils and creams
-Has a high compliance
-Can be used during pregnancy and lactation according to your doctor recommendations.

 

 

 dandruff

 

(also called scurf; its scientific name is Pityriasis capitis)

Definition:
It is the excessive flaking of dead skin that forms on the scalp.

Signs:
1. As skin grows, epidermal cells are pushed outward where they die and flake off the head. In most people, these flakes of skin are too small to be visible.
2. In dandruff conditions, cell turnover is rapid, especially common in the scalp, skin cells may die and be replaced about once every two weeks, as opposed to around once a month in people without dandruff.
3. The result is that dead skin cells are shed in large clumps, which appear as small, white or grayish patches on the scalp, It may be accompanied by irritation, itching and inflammation.
4. Dandruff is a symptom of seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, fungal infection or head lice.
5. Excessive scratching should be avoided. Scratching can increase the risk for infections, particularly from staph and strep bacteria. these infections are the biggest risk from dandruff,
6. Many people find that dandruff treatment very important for social reasons. 7. Can occur to wide range of population ages between 12 to 80 years old.

Causes:
Dandruff is a multifactor disorder that may be exogenous or endogenous factors:
1. The most common cause of dandruff is the fungus Pityrosporum ovale( Malassezia furfur).
2. Overactive sebaceous glands.
3. Heredity predisposition.
4. Hormonal Imbalance
5. Food allergies.
6. Excessive perspiration.
7. Poor health.
8. Poor hygiene
9. Use of alkaline soaps.
10. Yeast infections.
11. Stressful conditions.
12. The season of the year can contribute to the problem: Cold, dry winters is notorious for bringing on dandruff or making it worse.
13. Symptoms of dandruff can also be aggravated by: Exposure to dust, UV light, harsh shampoos, and hair dyes. In rare cases, dandruff may be caused by over use of hair gel or spray.
14. Nutrition Dandruff can in some cases be linked to poor nutrition, particularly deficiencies in the mineral zinc. Zinc can be found in. Excessive consumption of sugar, fat and starch may worsen the case.

Treatment:
1. Antifungal shampoos e.g Octopirox and ketoconazole. That remarkably inhibits P.Ovale and decrease the formation of flakes significantly

2. Using acid-based shampoos
To restore acidity to the scalp, breaking down oils and preventing dead skin cells from collecting into visible clumps

3. Coal Tar shampoos.
Coal tar has been in increasing disfavor in the United States due to suspected carcinogenic properties.

4. Selinium sulphide shampoo.
5. Zn Pyrithione.
6. salycilic acid.
It is a keratolytic agent which helps to remove flakes

Dry and Greasy Dandruff:
Dandruff can cause either
1) Overly dry scalp with itchy white flakes that may be waxy or greasy
2) As oily greasy scalp with scales.

Non-microbial causes of dandruff:
May operate through physical or chemical irritants; the release of pro-inflammatory mediators is increased. This could lead to the subclinical micro inflammation present in dandruff. In seborrheic dermatitis, local deposits of immunoglobulin and the release of lymphokines are responsible for the recruitment and local activation of leukocytes leading to the eventual amplification of the inflammatory reaction.

Dandruff and diet:

Nutrition can play a big part in controlling dandruff. To counteract the inefficient carbohydrates and fatty-acid metabolization, which can cause dandruff, include plenty of B vitamins in your diet. Nutritional yeast and raw wheat germ are two excellent sources of B vitamins, particularly vitamin B6 which plays an important role in controlling dandruff.

Eggs and cabbage also provide vitamin B6 in addition to supplying sulfur which is nature's beauty mineral for the scalp. Sometimes an allergy to dairy products may cause dandruff in which case alternative food sources of vitamin B6 are preferred. Other common allergens which provoke dandruff are chocolate, nuts and shellfish. The good fats, found in nuts and flax seed benefit the body and promote healthy scalps.

Alternative Treatments

Garlic and oil of oregano are also excellent for fighting dandruff. You can take it internally or externally depending on what seems to work best for your situation. Both are sold in health food stores as capsules or tablets.

Improving Circulation

Alternating hot and cold water on the head increases circulation to the scalp.

Exercising out in the fresh air will also help with circulation to the scalp. Brush your scalp carefully to loosen scales before shampooing. If you wash your hair daily use small amounts of baby shampoo. Harsh shampoos will just cause the sebaceous gland to overcompensate by producing more oil than necessary.

Sulfur Products Are Beneficial

Onions are high in sulfur. Wash your hair once a week with sulfur based soap. Avoid hair products that contain alcohol which dries out the scalp. Also avoid hair dryers which will also dry the scalp and add to the problem.



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